Ok so I know everyone is complaning about the refs, and I've read the posts, but my question is this:
In football and baseball, the refs can always discuss a call with each other, and sometimes the call gets overturned. Twice in the last week, the ref standing 5 feet away from a 'call' did not raise their arm, but the ref 45 feet away did. Does the NHL allow, and/or reccomend the two ref's to discuss the call and decide whether it should actually be a penalty or not? I know the linesmen do this with icings, you'll see one linesemen with his hand up, and the other wave it off, and the call goes to the one closest to the call.
I am 99% sure a linesman can call a penalty. This isn't encouraged, but because the refs can't see everything it's allowed. As for conferencing (is that a word?) about a penalty, as far as I know, and again, 99% sure here, once a penalty is called that's that, no overturning of a penalty. I have played hockey competitively for 13 years (since I was 6) and watched the NHL since I was 3 and never ever ever remember seeing a penalty overturned. It'd be like overturning a foul in basketball, which I don't think can happen either...hope that helped.
I believe a penalty can be overturned actually. I'm pretty sure I've seen it happen. A penalty cannot be reviewed like a goal, but if there is a disagreement in what one ref saw vs what the other did, they can discuss, and make a change if necessary.
The only penalty that can be overturned is the shooting the puck out of play.
Lineman's can only call too many men on the ice penalty but the referee can ask if they saw what happened when a player got injured in result of a hit, stick, etc. The ref would then assess the major if he feels it is necessary.
As for the 45 feet away thing, I believe the reasoning with that is one ref watches the puck and the other ref from further away watches the play for penalties. Unless the penalty is blatantly in the closer ref's face enough for him to call it, I've noticed a lot of times the other ref will call a lot.